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Rôle de la reconnaissance dans la construction de l’identité au travail

El Akremi, Assâad, Sassi, Narjes and Bouzidi, Sihem (2009) Rôle de la reconnaissance dans la construction de l’identité au travail. Relations industrielles, vol. 64 (n° 4). pp. 662-684.

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Official URL : http://dx.doi.org/10.7202/038878ar
Identification Number : 10.7202/038878ar

Abstract

La reconnaissance est un concept complexe, polymorphe et polysémique (Brun et Dugas, 2005 ; Ricœur, 2004). L'analyse de son contenu, de ses formes et de ses critères reste fragmentaire. La compréhension de la reconnaissance est d'autant plus importante que face au flou des repères individuels et collectifs, l'expérience de travail constitue un mode de mise à l'épreuve d'une identité mouvante, constamment remaniée par les marques de reconnaissance octroyées ou non. En effet, le travail demeure un lieu essentiel du lien social et de quête identitaire. La reconnaissance au travail constitue ainsi un levier important dans la construction et la confirmation de soi. En se référant à la psychodynamique du travail (Dejours, 1998), l'objectif de cet article est d'étudier le rôle de la reconnaissance dans la construction de l'identité professionnelle. Plus précisément, le travail est abordé selon deux perspectives : (1) comme un lieu de socialisation dans lequel la construction de soi est tributaire des interactions avec autrui (superviseurs, collègues, subordonnés et clients) ; (2) comme un instrument mobilisé dans le processus de validation des identités des acteurs. La mise en perspective du rapport entre la reconnaissance et l'identité au travail est basée sur une démarche qualitative interprétative. La méthodologie utilisée a consisté en des entretiens approfondis et compréhensifs auprès de onze salariés tunisiens. L'analyse de contenu du discours de ces salariés a permis de construire une grille de lecture des liens entre reconnaissance et identité au travail. Cette grille distingue entre le contenu et le processus de reconnaissance. En termes de contenu, la reconnaissance est caractérisée par sa bidimensionnalité combinant une reconnaissance de conformité avec une reconnaissance de distinction. En termes de processus, la reconnaissance au travail suppose un mouvement à différents niveaux : identification, attestation de valeur et récompense. À partir de cette grille, la gestion de la reconnaissance au travail est abordée en termes des limites actuelles des pratiques managériales des ressources humaines. SUMMARY : The Role of Recognition in the Construction of Identity at Work Although there is an increasing interest of human resource managers on the theme of recognition, the effects of an assumed lack of recognition remain confined to a strictly psychological and individual level. The accumulation of individual experiences related to the lack of recognition may generate, at the collective level, counterproductive behaviors that, therefore, have an effect on organizational efficiency. In this way, a number of questions remain unanswered in the field of recognition in the workplace. What does recognition mean? What do we recognize or what would we like to see recognized? Recognition understood as consideration comes close to recognition understood as reputation; recognition sometimes deals with accomplishments or efficiency or even group belonging. The aim of this paper is to firmly establish the study of recognition in the process of identity construction at work. Even though work—inside more and more complex and flexible organizations—has lost its centrality in the life of individuals, it remains both a place and a factor for identity development. Thus, multiple signs of recognition may contribute to reinforce and stabilize the identity at work. Since it is an ongoing process, identity is shaped and reshaped by continuous interactions with others. Do experiences at work, in interactional situations, constitute a way of testing a shifting identity, constantly being reshaped by signs of recognition, granted or not? Work is an important place in the construction and confirmation of self. The objective of this paper is to identify and analyze the role of recognition at work in the process of identity construction. More specifically, work is approached using two perspectives: (1) as a place of socialization in which constructing self depends on interactions with others (supervisors, colleagues, subordinates, and customers); (2) as a tool that is mobilized in the process of validating the identities of the actors. Utilizing a qualitative design, based on comprehensive in-depth interviews, we asked Tunisian workers about their experiences of recognition at work. A qualitative approach is particularly useful in that it does not impose a content of recognition; rather, it allows respondents to describe recognition forms and criteria in their own terms. Our results were used to develop a framework that details the role of recognition at work in the process of constructing professional identity. This framework distinguishes between the contents and the processes of recognition. In terms of contents, recognition is characterized by its bi-dimensionality going from conformity recognition to recognition of distinction. As a process, recognition at work supposes movement at different levels: identification, certificate of value, and reward. A major contribution of this study is to integrate works on recognition and identity at work. Finally, practical implications to help human resource professionals to better understand and manage recognition practices are discussed.

Item Type: Article
Language: French
Date: 2009
Refereed: Yes
Additional Information: Assâad El Akremi Maître de conférences à l'Université de Toulouse 1 – LIRHE, Toulouse, France assaad.el-akremi@univ-tlse1.fr Narjes Sassi Professeur permanent à l'ISG-Paris, Paris, France Sihem Bouzidi Doctorante à l'Université de Toulouse 1 – LIRHE, Toulouse, France
Uncontrolled Keywords: reconnaissance travail identité, pratiques managériales, recognition work identity, managerial practices
Subjects: C- GESTION > C4- Management
Divisions: TSM Research (Toulouse)
Site: UT1
Date Deposited: 11 Jun 2015 10:03
Last Modified: 02 Apr 2021 15:47
URI: http://publications.ut-capitole.fr/id/eprint/14663

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